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The innovative technology of producing autoclaved concrete has won an award in the competition for the Polish Product of the Future in 2011

miniICiMB designed an innovative technology for manufacturing of autoclaved cellular concrete (ABK) with the use of new generation fly ashes, i.e. those resulting form coal burning in fluidized combustion bed (FCB) boilers, with simultaneous process of desulphurisation of combustion exhaust gases.




AwardA new, energy-saving, environment-friendly construction material was created. Its production process simultaneously solves the problem of waste material. The different conditions under which fluidized ashes are created set it widely apart from the so far used traditional silica ashes, giving rise to the problem of their management. By choosing the right formulation of ABK and proper technological efforts, attempts were made to produce ABK with the use of fluidized ashes on laboratory and semitechnical scale. The research has shown that application of fluidized ashes (depending on their properties) enables reduction in ABK formulation of calcium content by 10-20% and of sulphur material by 60% to as much as 100%, resulting in reduced costs of ABK production and reduced exploration of natural resources. The developed technology also contributes to natural environment protection by reducing the storage of fluidized ashes and reducing SO2 and NOx emissions into the atmosphere.



The technology corresponds to global trends in waste recycling in construction materials industry. Currently the volume of traditional silica ashes is going down, accompanied by increasing coal burning in fluidized bed combustion (FBC) boilers, with ashes discharge from FBC boilers currently amounting to approx. 2 mio tonnes per year in Poland. Hence it has become necessary to develop lines of new generation fly ashes to ABK production is a completely innovative solution.



The zero-waste, environmentally-friendly ABK manufacturing method allows for production of a wide assortment of products meeting the requirements of European standards to be used in various types of constructions (residential, public utility, industrial). The technology for use of fluidized ashes can be used in the existing manufacturing plants of autoclaved cellular concrete, producing concrete in accordance with the technologies using traditional silica ashes. It is not necessary to purchase the new devices from an ABK manufacturing plant to implement this technology.



Implementation tests were initiated in one of the ABK manufacturing plants with the use of fluidized ashes coming from a modern, Europe’s largest boiler. The progress of the tests indicates that invention’s implementation shall allow for attainment of assumed technical and economical effects.



A beneficial effect ensuing from the use of fluidized ashes instead of silica ashes is the reduction of the ABK manufacturing costs, manifested in reduced volumes of calcium and gypsum in concrete formulations. It is also possible to reduce the amount of cement required for concrete production if it is introduced into ABK composition. As a result, this contributes to natural environment protection (reduced use of natural resources).
Also significant saving effects are obtained for the costs of energy used for milling of the ashes remains, because fluidized ashes are milled faster (owing to different hardness) than silica ashes.
Some savings will also emerge from reduction of the costs arising from reduced landfills’ areas. In this case there is also an environmental effect – despite safeguards being used, the landfills frequently produce dust.
It shall be stressed that burning of coal in FBC boilers largely reduces air pollution with SO2 and NOx compared to coal burning in traditional coal dust boilers.  Burning of coal in FBC boilers reduces 5 times and more the SO2 pollution discharges into air and NOx pollution discharges by 20-30%.


The use of new generation fly ashes for manufacturing of autoclaved cellular concrete is completely innovative – there are no parallel solutions.


SEM images of fly silica ash (a) and fluidized ash (b)
popiół lotny a) popioły lotne b)
Manufacturing of cellular concrete according to the developed technology on laboratory scale (a) and semi-technical scale (b)

produkcja betonu a)

produkcja betonu b)
Manufacturing capabilities for AAC products
  • prof. ICiMB Genowefa Zapotoczna-Sytek Ph. D. Eng.
  • Katarzyna Łaskawiec  Ph. D. Eng.
  • dr inż. Piotr Gębarowski Ph. D. Eng.
  • Tadeusz Latuszek Eng.
  • prof. Jan Małolepszy Ph. D. Eng., AGH
  • Zdzisław Pytel, Ph. D. Eng., AGH
  • Wojciech Roszczynialski, Ph. D. Eng., AGH



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