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Application of roasted low-calorie coal-associated shales in building technology

Graf1The Glass and Building Materials Division of the Institute of Ceramics and Building Materials and the Department of Building Materials Technology of the Faculty of Materials Science and Ceramics of the AGH University of Science and Technology, basing on their research and development works, have elaborated an innovative technology:  a method of roasting of low-calorie coal-associated shales or clays containing no combustible parts in an annular fluid layer, and a reactor with an annular fluid layer for their roasting.



Roasted low-calorie coal-associated shales are used in building as a low-weight concrete filler. A special area of their application is the cement industry, where the product obtained with the new technology may be used as a pozzolan additive. The additive consists of silty materials obtained from coal-associated shales or roasted clays, dehydrated in the process of roasting in a fluid layer.


Graf2The application of diverse mineral additives, including waste materials such as coal-associated shales, as well as improvements and changes of the technology of cement and concrete production, will allow to manufacture "a better composite from worse materials". The necessary technological development in that area is made possible, for example, by using active hydraulic powders, by designing concrete composition that matches its applications more accurately, and by modernizing the technology of its production. To achieve this, it is necessary to develop theoretical foundations of properties and mutual interactions of concrete components, including pozzolan mineral additives.


Coal-associated shales - one of the components of the gangue obtained in the process of hard coal extraction - are materials with very promising future applications as additives in the production of cement and high-quality concrete. The gangue, including the shales, is stored in mine dumps in the areas where coal is produced. The waste is usually inert, but it may still pose a potential threat for the environment since the salts contained in the waste material are leached and thus constitute a source of pollution of the underground and surface waters and soil; moreover, the waste contributes to polluting the adjacent areas with the dust from the dumped material; also, thermally active dumps emit considerable amounts of air-polluting gases (including CO and CO2) and may endanger the local population in case of their insufficient protection.


The described invention has been submitted to the Polish Patent Office under the title “A method of roasting of low-calorie coal-associated shales or clays  and a reactor for its application.”


•    Ryszard Lech Ph.D. Eng.
•    Henryk Szeląg Ph.D. Eng.
•    Prof. Jan Małolepszy Ph.D. Eng.
•    Andrzej Stankiewicz

The invention was a subject of the project entitled Patent protection and commercialization of innovative technological solutions in the field of plastering mortars produced on the base of Roman cement and of the method of coal-associated shale roasting within the "Patent Plus" Programme of the Ministry of Science and Higher Education.




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